My Four Pillars of Cybersecurity model is a user-friendly cybersecurity framework which small and mid-sized organizations (and individuals) can use as guidance for their cybersecurity plan and practice. It consists of continual improvement of:

The beauty of this conceptual framework is its simplicity and efficiency. It is understandable and accessible to every person, from the newest hire to the head of the organization, and importantly for those without a technical background. That…


This short article offers guidance for students and anyone else writing a paper. It is based upon my personal experience writing and teaching, with helpful concepts and tips. Of course, everyone is different, so adapt as needed to suit your needs.

I have written a lot over my years. I am lucky to have had many good teachers and a lot of practice through work and by writing dozens of articles and two books. But still writing doesn’t come easy. Over years of teaching I have implemented a phased process to aid my students with the writing process and encourage…


This short article offers guidance for students and all learners including those studying for exams. It is based upon my personal experience and contains some helpful concepts. Of course, everyone learns slightly differently, so take this and adapt as needed to suit your needs.

Over the decades I have learned some complicated content under tough circumstances. When I entered college, I had never taken a physics course but somehow decided to become a physics major. The textbooks, courses, and materials were daunting but I developed methods to learn, even while sleep deprived and when my mind and body said to…


This short article offers guidance for those preparing for an exam, including those studying for certification exams. It is based upon my personal experience and contains some helpful concepts. Of course, everyone approaches testing from a different perspective, so adapt as needed to suit yourself.

I have taken a lot of tests over the years and have developed some decent skills. Challenging tests have included college exams, Army and State Police tests, law school admissions test and exams and the bar exams, and many certification tests, including some highly technical materials that were very challenging. …


This article briefly summarizes the CIPP/US certification, how to study for it, and provides some important resources. CIPP/US stands for Certified Information Privacy Professional, United States and focuses on US privacy law and practice. The certification is administered by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP).

Your goal

If you have decided to study for and take the CIPP/US certification, then I suggest that your goal should be:


Students and others wishing to better themselves in areas related to technology often wonder what training or certifications they should pursue. I have travelled that road myself (I am still on that journey) and have put some of my guidance to writing here. Some of this is general to all, some specific to certain areas of learning and work.

Improving knowledge should never stop. That is an important philosophy for life (and my first pillar of cybersecurity). There are many excellent ways to improve knowledge that range from reading and self-study, to prep courses, to higher education. Additionally, many wish…


Information security is the process of protecting information, whatever form that information takes. We store and communicate information in many ways and forms, and information security is about protecting it. The need for information security has existed for millennia, and there is a well established profession devoted to it. Cybersecurity is a newer and indispensable subset of information security, focused on protecting information assets in digital form. Organizations should build comprehensive and holistic information security programs, which will encompass cybersecurity.

This brief and introductory article is designed to get you started on this concept, and additional resources are provided below.


This is an outline (with some factual nuggets) and not really an article. I use this to teach non-lawyers basic principles of law, within various courses at the undergraduate and graduate level. I thought it would be helpful to post online for my students and anyone else interested in a summary.

For more detail, see Chapter 5, “Fundamental Principles of Criminal and Civil Law” in my book, “Cybercrime Investigations: A Comprehensive Resource for Everyone”.

1. Introduction

There are two sayings to think about regarding the law and lawyers. Consider what they might mean, including alternate interpretations.


Here’s a quick primer on the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, what it means for free speech, and how it applies to social media and other platforms for speech. Misconceptions abound since law can be confusing and because some actively disseminate false information. This short piece lays out the basics.

The United States Constitution is the foundation of all laws in this country. It establishes our system of government and puts limits upon what government can do. It created a system of checks and balances by establishing three branches of government — executive, legislative, and judicial. Our federal…


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A data breach is the unlawful access of an organization’s or person’s data. Such breaches can have considerable consequences of a financial, legal, and reputational nature. Data breach is one of the three top threats that organizations and individuals should be aware of and protect against (the others are email based funds transfer frauds and ransomware).

Certain cybercriminals devote their efforts to committing data breaches. Data breaches are serious crimes under federal law and the law of every state. Indeed, even an unsuccessful attempt to commit a data breach is a crime. But when these cybercriminals are successful, the stolen…

John Bandler

Attorney, consultant, author, speaker. Cybersecurity, investigations (including of cybercrime), and more. Find me at JohnBandler.com

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